What Is a Crackpot? Definition & 10+ Examples

Have you ever come across a theory or idea that sounded too bizarre to be true? Maybe you’ve heard someone claim that the moon landing was faked, or that the earth is flat. Or perhaps you’ve come across a conspiracy theory about vaccines or the Illuminati.

Whatever the case, if you’ve ever wondered whether the person behind these ideas was a bit, well, off their rocker, then you might have stumbled upon a crackpot theory.

In this article, we’ll explore the definition and examples of crackpot theories, and share some tips on how to identify them. We’ll also delve into the psychology of why people believe in crackpot theories, the consequences of their spread, and strategies for debunking them.

Whether you’re a curious reader or a skeptic trying to make sense of the world, this article will help you better understand the curious phenomenon of crackpot theories.

Let’s get started:

Table of Contents

What Is a Crackpot Theory?

A crackpot theory refers to an idea or belief that is generally considered to be baseless, absurd, or bizarre, often deviating from established scientific facts or rational thought. These theories are usually disregarded by the majority of experts and scholars in their respective fields.

The term “crackpot” finds its roots in the late 19th century, primarily used to describe an eccentric or insane person. It later began to be associated with outlandish and irrational ideas, giving rise to the phrase “crackpot theory.”

Crackpot theories can take various forms, with interpretations depending on the context in which they are used. Some common categories include:

  • Pseudoscience: Theories that are not supported by scientific research or principles, often involving fabricated or misinterpreted evidence.
  • Conspiracy theories: Ideas that involve powerful actors working in secret to manipulate events or control society, usually lacking solid evidence to support the claims.
  • Supernatural or paranormal phenomena: Instances or situations that are believed to defy the laws of nature and involve unexplained forces, such as psychic powers, ghosts, or alien visitations.

It’s important to note that evaluating the validity of a theory is not always clear-cut. Some theories, initially dismissed as crackpot, have evolved into mainstream ideas as new evidence emerges.

Nonetheless, it’s crucial to approach any theory with a critical eye, considering the available facts and probabilities before reaching a conclusion.

Identifying Crackpot Ideas: Characteristics

Crackpot ideas share certain characteristics that make them stand out from legitimate scientific theories or hypotheses. In this section, we will discuss the following sub-sections as key traits of crackpot ideas:

Lack of Scientific Evidence

Crackpot ideas often need more scientific evidence to support their claims. They might rely on personal experiences, anecdotes, or misinterpreted data instead. These ideas do not provide testable predictions and are often not subject to rigorous experimentation or investigation.

Overreliance on Anecdotal Evidence

Crackpot ideas often rely heavily on anecdotal evidence in place of rigorous scientific study or data. Anecdotes can be compelling but are unreliable sources of information, as they can be subject to:

  • Bias
  • Misinterpretation
  • Simple error

Contradictory Information

Crackpot ideas exhibit inconsistencies in their claims and are frequently contradictory. They may present conflicting statements or ideas within their theories or align themselves with other crackpot ideas that inherently oppose each other.

Unfalsifiable Claims

One of the hallmarks of scientific inquiry is the ability to prove or disprove a claim through testing and experimentation. Crackpot ideas often make claims that cannot be falsified, rendering them untestable and, therefore, outside the realm of scientific inquiry.

Unproven Assumptions

Crackpot ideas often rely on unproven assumptions about the world or underlying principles that have not yet been established as true. These assumptions might be stated as self-evident truth, but lack empirical evidence to support them.

Logical Inconsistencies

Many crackpot ideas contain inconsistencies in their logical structure, which can indicate flaws in their underlying assumptions or conclusions. These inconsistencies can make it difficult to follow the reasoning behind the idea and often reveal the idea’s weak foundation.

Resistance to Criticism or Review by Experts

Crackpot ideas often resist scrutiny and criticism from experts in the field. Proponents of these ideas may dismiss any doubts or questions raised by academics or researchers, often by labeling them as part of a conspiracy or cover-up.

Other Key Features

In addition to the characteristics outlined above, crackpot ideas can exhibit other traits like:

  • Presenting their claims as revolutionary or underdog theories.
  • Using technical jargon to confuse or impress readers.
  • Promoting ideas that benefit the proponent in some personal or financial way.

Psychology Behind Crackpot Beliefs

There are various psychological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of crackpot beliefs. Some of the most significant factors include the following:

Cognitive Biases

Cognitive biases are systematic errors in thinking that can lead people to adopt and maintain irrational beliefs. These biases can make it difficult for people to recognize the flaws in their thinking and may play a significant role in the development of crackpot beliefs.

Some common cognitive biases that contribute to crackpot beliefs include:

  • Confirmation bias
  • Availability heuristic
  • Belief perseverance

Conspiracy Thinking

Conspiracy thinking plays a prominent role in many crackpot beliefs, as conspiracy theories tend to be based on unsubstantiated claims and implausible scenarios. These theories often involve the assumption that powerful and secretive elites are manipulating events for their own gain.

The Appeal of Conspiracy Theories

Conspiracy theories can be alluring because they offer a sense of control and empowerment. By uncovering hidden forces supposedly manipulating world events, believers may feel a sense of agency and understanding that is lacking in their everyday lives.

Groupthink and Social Influence

Groupthink occurs when people within a group prioritize conformity and group harmony over critical thinking and realistic evaluation of facts. This can lead to the acceptance of irrational beliefs, even in the face of contradictory evidence.

Social influence from peers, authority figures, and media sources can also contribute to the adoption and maintenance of crackpot beliefs.

The Desire for Simple Explanations to Complex Problems

Many people are drawn to crackpot beliefs because they offer simple, straightforward explanations for complex issues. This can be appealing, especially in times of uncertainty or confusion. However, these simple explanations often lack nuance and are frequently unsupported by empirical evidence.

The Lure of “Secret Knowledge”

Crackpot beliefs often involve the promise of “secret” or “exclusive” knowledge, which can be a powerful motivator for some people. The idea of possessing information that others do not have can be enticing, fostering a sense of superiority and intimacy with a select group of insiders.

Other Psychological Factors

Other psychological factors that may contribute to crackpot beliefs include:

  • Emotional reasoning (basing beliefs on emotions instead of facts)
  • Cognitive dissonance (maintaining beliefs despite conflicting evidence to avoid mental discomfort)
  • Personal grievances (attributing personal difficulties to external forces)

Famous Crackpot Examples

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla, a renowned inventor, and engineer, is often labeled as a crackpot due to some of his unconventional ideas and inventions.

While he contributed significantly to the development of alternating current (AC) electrical systems, he also had some controversial ideas, such as wireless energy transmission and a supposed “death ray.”

Royal Rife

Royal Rife was an American inventor best known for his claims of creating a device called the Rife Machine, which he believed could treat various diseases, including cancer, using specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

Rife’s theories and device, however, were controversial and attracted criticism from the scientific community for lack of credible evidence to support his claims.

Wilhelm Reich

Wilhelm Reich, an Austrian psychoanalyst, is notable for his crackpot theories related to “orgone energy,” a hypothetical life energy that he believed to be present in all living organisms.

Reich invented devices, such as the Orgone Accumulator and Cloudbuster, to harness and manipulate this supposed energy. Many of his ideas were deemed pseudoscientific and led to professional and legal troubles later in his life.

Historical Examples of Crackpottery

The history of science and human thought has often been marked by erroneous ideas or beliefs that have gained significant attention, despite being unfounded. The examples below provide insights into some of the most notable instances of crackpottery in history.

Perpetual Motion Machines

Perpetual motion machines, which claimed to be able to run indefinitely without the input of energy, have been proposed throughout history. In the 12th century, an Indian mathematician named Bhaskara II proposed an early design for such a device.

Despite being debunked as a violation of the laws of thermodynamics, inventors throughout history have presented numerous ideas for perpetual motion machines, often to make incredible profits until their claims were discredited.

The Flat Earth Theory

Although ancient civilizations such as the Greeks and Romans widely understood that the Earth is round, the belief in a flat Earth persisted among some populations for centuries. They argue that photographs and videos of a spherical Earth are staged and that the world is actually a flat disc surrounded by a wall of ice.

Paradoxically, this idea resurged in the 19th century when a man named Samuel Rowbotham published a book arguing about the Earth being flat. Despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, the belief in a flat Earth continues among a small number of individuals even today.

Hollow Earth Theory

The Hollow Earth Theory posits that the Earth’s interior is hollow and populated by advanced civilizations or otherworldly beings. This idea gained traction in the 17th century when scientists such as Edmond Halley attempted to explain the Earth’s magnetic field by suggesting it was caused by multiple layers within a hollow Earth.

Although disproven by advances in geology and physics, the notion of a hollow Earth remains a popular topic in conspiracy theories and pseudoscience.

Phlogiston Theory

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Phlogiston Theory was a widely accepted scientific idea attempting to explain combustion, rusting, and other processes.

According to this theory, a substance called phlogiston was released during these processes, accounting for the observed changes in materials. However, the Phlogiston Theory was ultimately replaced by the more accurate modern understanding of oxidation reactions involving oxygen.

Despite being debunked, the Phlogiston Theory serves as a reminder of the importance of skepticism and evidence-based thinking in the progress of scientific knowledge.

Contemporary Examples of Crackpot Theories

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of crackpot theories gaining traction on the internet and social media. This section will discuss some contemporary examples of such theories without lending them credibility.

5G Technology and Conspiracy Theories

One widely-circulated conspiracy theory relates to the rollout of 5G technology. Some individuals have claimed that 5G cell towers emit harmful radiation, leading to severe health effects or even acting as a mind control mechanism.

However, numerous scientific studies have shown that the radiation emitted by 5G technology is well within safe limits, and there is no credible evidence to support these far-fetched claims.

Baseless Theories About COVID-19 Vaccines

Another contemporary example involves vaccines, particularly those developed for COVID-19. Despite the overwhelming consensus among healthcare professionals regarding the safety and efficacy of these vaccines, various baseless theories have arisen, promoting vaccine hesitancy.

These unfounded claims range from the belief that vaccines contain tracking devices to the notion that they alter human DNA. Such theories are easily debunked by reliable scientific research, but they continue to spread and pose a significant threat to public health.

Celebrity Conspiracy Theories

Additionally, in recent times, there have been conspiracy theories about celebrities and powerful figures engaging in nefarious activities, such as participating in elaborate child trafficking rings.

While it is crucial to address genuine incidents of human trafficking, these specific claims are often based on speculation and hearsay and should be treated with skepticism.

It is worth noting that the internet and social media platforms have played a significant role in the rapid dissemination of crackpot theories. As consumers of information, it is essential to:

  • Remain vigilant in recognizing and disregarding such unsubstantiated claims.
  • Turn to trusted sources for accurate information.
Did You Know? The Time Cube Theory is a crackpot — a complex, nonsensical theory that time is cubic and each day consists of four simultaneous 24-hour periods.

Other Bizarre Theories That Have Gained Traction

These theories often rely on misinformation, misunderstanding, or speculation, yet some people continue to believe in them. Here are a few examples:


This theory posits that airplanes release harmful chemicals called “chemtrails” via their exhaust systems. Proponents believe these chemicals are meant to control the population, manipulate the weather, or serve other nefarious purposes.

The Moon Landing Hoax

An enduring conspiracy theory suggests that NASA faked the moon landing to gain a strategic advantage during the Cold War. According to the theory, the United States government staged the historic event on a soundstage, using high-quality visuals and actor-astronauts.

Pro Tip: It is important to rely on verifiable evidence, rational thinking, and trustworthy experts when evaluating claims and forming one's beliefs.

Crackpot vs. Maverick: Key Differences

In order to identify the difference between a crackpot and a maverick, it is essential to understand their respective definitions.

A crackpot is an individual who holds eccentric or impractical ideas, often with little or no foundation in reality. On the other hand, a maverick is a person who refuses to conform to established norms and exhibits independent thinking, often contributing to groundbreaking discoveries and advancements.

There are key differences between the two that help in distinguishing crackpots from mavericks:

Validity of Ideas

  • Crackpots tend to have far-fetched, unrealistic ideas with no scientific or factual basis.
  • Mavericks, however, might propose ideas that are unconventional but are based on rational thinking, evidence, or scientific principles.

Level of Education

  • Crackpots often lack an appropriate educational or professional background in their field of interest.
  • Contrarily, mavericks usually have a strong knowledge base and experience to support their ideas and innovations.

Openness to Criticism

  • Crackpots tend to be resistant to criticism and maintain their beliefs despite evidence disproving their theories.
  • Mavericks, while advocating for their unorthodox ideas, remain open to opposing views, criticism, and constructive feedback.

Impact on Society

  • Crackpots’ ideas usually do not contribute significantly to advancements or improvements in their particular fields.
  • Mavericks, however, often make impactful contributions that lead to positive change or advancements in their respective domains.

Pros and Cons of Labeling Crackpots

Encourages critical thinking and questioning of established beliefs.Can lead to the spread of misinformation or false claims.
Potential for discovering innovative ideas or overlooked evidence.Wastes resources and time on disproven ideas or unproductive pursuits.
Contributes to diversity of thought and intellectual discussion.May negatively impact the credibility of legitimate research or researchers.

When evaluating crackpot ideas, it’s crucial to remain open-minded while maintaining a healthy skepticism. This approach helps distinguish between genuinely innovative ideas and those that lack merit.

One should always prioritize evidence-based research and consider the reliability of sources when forming opinions on crackpot theories or individuals.

Potential Dangers and Ethical Considerations

Crackpot ideas can have various effects on society, both direct and indirect. While some might view them as relatively harmless expressions of free thought, they can lead to serious consequences.

The potential dangers and ethical considerations related to crackpottery range from the spread of misinformation to real-world harm. This section will explore how misinformation stemming from crackpot ideas can impact public perception, the wasting of resources and time, and several other potential repercussions.

Misinformation and Public Perception

Crackpot theories can confuse or mislead people, contributing to the dissemination of false information, impeding critical thinking, and inciting fear in the general public.

When individuals base their beliefs on unsubstantiated claims, this can lead to distorted views of reality and impede constructive discourse about important societal matters.

Resources and Time Wasted

Advocates of crackpot ideas can consume valuable resources in their attempts to prove their theories.

Time, energy, and financial resources may be wasted on investigating or promoting baseless claims. This not only detracts from the valuable efforts of legitimate researchers and experts, but it can also disillusion those who are genuinely seeking truth and knowledge.

In some cases, crackpot ideas may even stifle innovation, as resources are diverted away from legitimate research and exploration. The opportunity cost of investing in fruitless pursuits can significantly impede overall societal progress.

Erosion of Trust in Legitimate Sources of Information

As misinformation spreads, people may increasingly distrust established sources, leading to a continued cycle of misinformation and confusion. When crackpot ideas are perceived as credible, they can undermine trust in the knowledge and competence of experts and authoritative institutions.

Other Potential Consequences

Crackpot ideas can have indirect and unforeseen impacts on various aspects of society, including:

  • Relationships
  • Education
  • The economy

Regarding ethical considerations, some concerns include:

Exploitation of Vulnerable Individuals

Crackpot theories may exploit individuals who are desperate for solutions or understanding, leading them to invest in ideas that offer little to no benefit.

Creation of Unnecessary Fear or Anxiety

Fearmongering is common among crackpots, causing some people to worry unnecessarily in relation to spurious claims.

Conflicts of Interest

Financial or personal gain is often a motive for promoting crackpot theories, leading to biased information and manipulation of susceptible audiences.

It is essential for researchers, educators, and society at large to exercise caution and skepticism when encountering crackpot ideas to minimize the potential dangers and ethical drawbacks they may cause.

How to Identify Crackpot Theories

Crackpot theories can often be misleading, and recognizing them requires important skills such as critical thinking and scientific literacy. This section provides tips and strategies that can help in identifying crackpot theories and separating them from credible information.

Several common fallacies can be spotted in crackpot theories:

Appeal to Authority

Crackpot theories may rely on the support of a figure of authority, real or perceived.

Tip: Be cautious of theories that depend heavily on an individual's credentials rather than the evidence and arguments presented.

Anecdotal Evidence

These theories may also rely on personal stories and anecdotes, which lack proper scientific methodology.

Tip: Always consider whether the evidence is anecdotal or based on rigorous research.

The Importance of Critical Thinking and Scientific Literacy

Being able to think critically and evaluate information from a scientific perspective is essential in identifying crackpot theories. This involves:

  • Asking questions and seeking evidence: Always look for well-researched and fact-checked information.
  • Considering alternative explanations: Analyze any potential biases or blind spots in a theory.
  • Understanding the scientific method: Be familiar with how rigorous research is conducted and ensure the theory follows these standards.

Strategies for Evaluating Sources and Information

Evaluating the credibility of a source is crucial to determining the reliability of a given theory. Use the following strategies:

  • Check for credibility: Assess the credentials, reputation, and background of the author and publisher of the information.
  • Verify claims: Cross-reference information with other credible sources to ensure accuracy and consistency.
  • Be wary of sensationalism: Be cautious of extraordinary claims without substantial evidence and be critical of emotional language and theatrical presentations.

Dealing with Crackpots

When dealing with crackpots, there are several methods that can be employed to disprove false theories and facilitate effective communication. The key is to debunk misinformation and engage in constructive conversations with those who subscribe to these ideas.

The Importance of Debunking Misinformation

Debunking misinformation is crucial, as it helps to prevent the spread of false beliefs that could potentially cause harm to society. By clearing up misconceptions and refuting false information, others can understand the difference between crackpot theories and evidence-based facts.

Constructive Conversations

Engaging in civil discourse when conversing with crackpots can lead to more effective communication and promote understanding between both parties. Two strategies for promoting constructive conversations include debunking crackpot theories and setting boundaries.

Debunking Crackpot Theories

Debunking crackpot theories can be achieved through:

  • Fact-checking: Involves researching the claims made.
  • Engaging in respectful dialogue: Allows for open communication without alienating the other party.
  • Presenting credible evidence

Setting Boundaries

Establishing boundaries when discussing crackpot theories can prevent unnecessary conflict and encourage healthy debate. Below are tips for setting boundaries:

  • Understand one’s limits.
  • Maintain a level of respect throughout the interaction.

Tips for Discussing Crackpot Theories

When approaching a conversation with someone who believes in crackpot theories, consider these tips:

  1. Remain objective and unbiased in your analysis.
  2. Appeal to reason and evidence, not emotion.
  3. Be patient, as changing one’s beliefs often takes time.
  4. Respect the other person’s point of view, even if you disagree.

These guidelines can foster a more open-minded and respectful environment when addressing crackpot theories.

The Role of Social Media in the Spread of Crackpot Theories

Social media platforms have contributed significantly to the proliferation of crackpot theories worldwide. The ease of sharing information and the lack of fact-checking have created a fertile ground for these theories to spread and find followers.

The Impact of Echo Chambers

Echo chambers on social media are spaces where people with similar beliefs and opinions congregate, and they contribute to the spread of crackpot theories. By only interacting with like-minded individuals, users become insulated from differing perspectives and are more likely to accept unverified information that supports their views.

Algorithm-driven content feeds also contribute to the formation of echo chambers, as social media platforms prioritize content that aligns with a user’s existing beliefs, further entrenching them in their views and increasing their susceptibility to crackpot theories.

The Importance of Media Literacy

Media literacy is an essential skill for navigating the vast amount of information on social media. It involves the ability to critically analyze and evaluate the credibility and accuracy of media content. Developing strong media literacy skills is crucial for recognizing and avoiding crackpot theories that are prevalent online.

Teaching media literacy in schools and through public awareness campaigns can help counteract the spread of crackpot theories by enabling individuals to make informed decisions about the information they consume and share on social media.

Tips for Evaluating Sources and Information on Social Media

Developing a critical approach to the evaluation of sources and information on social media can help protect users from falling victim to crackpot theories. Some helpful tips for assessing content on social media platforms include:

  1. Verify the credibility of the source by checking their expertise and affiliations.
  2. Look for corroboration from multiple independent and reputable sources.
  3. Be mindful of clickbait headlines and emotionally charged content, which can often signal misinformation.
  4. Scrutinize the date, context, and quality of visual content such as images and videos to determine authenticity.
  5. Utilize fact-checking tools and websites to validate information before accepting and sharing it.

Frequently Asked Questions

What distinguishes a crackpot from a merely unconventional thinker?

Unconventional thinkers may challenge traditional views or push the boundaries of a field but will still adhere to basic principles and methods of scientific inquiry.

Crackpots, on the other hand, often disregard or misunderstand these principles, leading to wildly speculative or baseless beliefs.

Are all crackpot ideas inherently bad or harmful?

While crackpot ideas can be misleading or unproductive, they do not necessarily cause harm.

However, if these ideas are propagated in a way that undermines established scientific knowledge, they may have detrimental effects on public understanding and decision-making.

Can a crackpot idea ever turn out to be true?

It is highly unlikely, as crackpot ideas usually stem from a lack of understanding or adherence to fundamental principles in a given field.

However, it is not entirely impossible for a previously dismissed idea to be revisited and supported by evidence under rare circumstances.

How can one engage constructively with someone who holds crackpot beliefs?

When engaging with someone who holds crackpot beliefs, it is crucial to remain patient and respectful. Avoid confrontational or dismissive language, and instead ask probing questions to better understand their reasoning.

Presenting evidence and focusing on logical arguments can help guide the conversation.

How can we as a society reduce the prevalence of crackpot beliefs?

Education is a key factor in combating the spread of crackpot beliefs. By promoting scientific literacy and critical thinking, individuals can be better equipped to evaluate and reject baseless ideas.

Encouraging open dialogue and fact-based discussions can also contribute to a more informed and discerning society.


In conclusion, the prevalence and persistence of crackpot theories is a fascinating phenomenon that can be both entertaining and concerning. Throughout history, numerous crackpot ideas have surfaced, often with the potential to influence public opinion and sway support away from scientific consensus.

While some crackpot theories may seem harmless, their spread can have real-world consequences, from eroding public trust in legitimate sources of information to influencing public policy decisions.

To combat the spread of crackpot theories, it is essential to cultivate critical thinking skills, evaluate sources of information, and rely on scientific evidence. By doing so, we can navigate a world filled with the influence of misleading and baseless ideas with confidence and clarity, and continue to seek truth and understanding in all aspects of our lives.

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Jessa Claire is a registered healthcare provider. Music lover. Daydreamer. Thalassophile. Foodie. A hardworking Capricorn. Most days, an incurable empath. An old soul. Down-to-earth. Vibrant. When she's not writing, she can be seen relaxing with headphones on or engrossed in her favorite fan fiction book.